GLOSSARY - ABBREVIATIONS
International Accounting Standards. Older name for IFRS.
International Credit Entitlement
Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a type of fusion energy research that attempts to initiate nuclear fusion reactions by heating and compressing a fuel target, typically in the form of a pellet that most often contains a mixture of deuterium and tritium. The largest operational ICF experiment is the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the US, designed using all of the decades-long experience of earlier experiments.
International Finance Controller
Intermediate Fuel Oil. Blend of HFO and diesel, at various proportions.
International Financial Reporting Standards. A set of accounting standards. Currently they are issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). Many of the standards forming part of IFRS are known by the older name of IAS.
The Gas Interconnector Greece-Bulgaria (IGB Pipeline) will provide a direct link between the national natural gas systems of Republic of Greece and Republic of Bulgaria with an Entry Point in the vicinity of Komotini and an Exit Point in the vicinity of Stara Zagora. The IGB Pipeline will therefore act as a strategic gas transportation infrastructure providing diversification of gas supply to the Bulgarian and South East Europe gas market and supply security to Greece. The Project is being developed by the joint venture company ICGB AD, registered under Bulgarian law. The IGB pipeline will have a 32” (~813 mm) diameter and an overall length of approx. 182 km.
The Greece–Italy pipeline (Poseidon pipeline) is a proposed natural gas pipeline between Greece and Italy. It was developed by IGI Poseidon SA, a joint venture between DEPA and Italian Edison S.p.A. The feasibility study for the Greece–Italy pipeline was conducted in 2003. The study was funded by the European Commission. The memorandum of understanding for the construction of pipeline was signed between DEPA and Edison on 28 April 2005. It was followed by an intergovernmental agreement signed on 4 November 2005 in Rome by Italian Minister for Productive Activities Claudio Scajola and Greek Development Minister Dimitris Sioufas. Also the Turkish Minister of Energy and Natural Resources Hilmi Güler was present at the ceremony. On 31 January 2007, Italy's Minister of Economic Development Pierluigi Bersani, and Greek minister Dimitris Sioufas granted exclusive usage rights of the pipeline to Edison S.p.A. and DEPA for 25 years. This was approved by the European Commission in May 2007. On 26 July 2007, the additional protocol on construction was signed in Rome. On 11 June 2008, the project company for the offshore section IGI Poseidon SA was incorporated in Italy with 50% stakes held by DEPA and Edison. In February 2011, the engineering consultancy Penspen was awarded the basic engineering design contract for the on-shore section of the pipeline from Komotini in to Igoumenitsa, Thesprotia. In September 2011, the technical feasibility was confirmed by a marine survey completed by Fugro GeoConsulting.
ILO (International Labor Organization)
The International Labor Organization was created in 1919, as part of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, to reflect the belief that universal and lasting peace can be accomplished only if it is based on social justice. The International Labour Organization (ILO) is devoted to promoting social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights, pursuing its founding mission that labour peace is essential to prosperity. Today, the ILO helps advance the creation of decent work and the economic and working conditions that give working people and business people a stake in lasting peace, prosperity and progress. Its tripartite structure provides a unique platform for promoting decent work for all women and men. Its main aims are to promote rights at work, encourage decent employment opportunities, enhance social protection and strengthen dialogue on work-related issues.
Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC)
The indirect land use change impacts of biofuels, also known as ILUC, relates to the unintended consequence of releasing more carbon emissions due to land-use changes around the world induced by the expansion of croplands for ethanol or biodiesel production in response to the increased global demand for biofuels.
Pristine lands are cleared to replace the food crops that were diverted elsewhere to biofuels production. Because natural lands, such as rainforests and grasslands, store carbon in their soil and biomass as plants grow each year, clearance of wilderness for new farms translates to a net increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Due to this change in the carbon stock of the soil and the biomass, indirect land use change has consequences in the GHG (Greenhouse Gas) balance of a biofuel.
As reported or forecast in the profit and loss account net interest line for continental European companies.
Internetwork Operating System is the software used on the vast majority of Cisco Systems routers and all current Cisco network switches. IOS is a package of routing, switching, internetworking and telecommunications functions tightly integrated with a multitasking operating system. The first IOS was written by William Yeager.
Initial public offering (IPO) or stock market launch is a type of public offering in which shares of stock in a company usually are sold to institutional investors that in turn sell to the general public, on a securities exchange, for the first time. Through this process, a private company transforms into a public company. Initial public offerings are used by companies to raise expansion capital, to possibly monetize the investments of early private investors, and to become publicly traded enterprises. A company selling shares is never required to repay the capital to its public investors. After the IPO, when shares trade freely in the open market, money passes between public investors. Although IPO offers many advantages, there are also significant disadvantages, chief among these are the costs associated with the process and the requirement to disclose certain information that could prove helpful to competitors, or create shaky bridge with the existing vendors.
IRENA (International Renewable Energy Association)
The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) was officially founded in Bonn on 26 January 2009. The founding of IRENA was a significant milestone for world renewable energy deployment. At the Founding Conference 75 States from all over the world signed IRENA’s Statute. IRENA seeks to maintain a clear and independent position, providing a range of reliable and well-understood services that complement those already offered by the renewable energy community and gather existing, but scattered, activities around a central hub. IRENA seeks out, establishes and develops new synergies, facilitates dialogue, and information and best practice sharing. Cooperation at the global, regional and national levels, knowledge sharing, enabling policies and enhanced capacity, as well as the encouragement of investment flows and strengthened technology and innovation, are essential elements in the Agency’s efforts. IRENA is positioning itself as a platform for all-inclusive cooperation where stakeholders can make a positive contribution to the common goals. This cooperation and partnerships are essential underpinnings of IRENA’s work. It aims at becoming a powerful force in advancing the agenda of the widespread adoption and use of renewable energy, with the ultimate goal of safeguarding a sustainable future.
Internal Rate of Return. It is a capital budgeting method used by firms to decide whether they should make long-term investments. The IRR is the annualized effective compounded return rate which can be earned on the invested capital, i.e. the yield on the investment.
International Standards Organization. Model for Quality Assurance in Design & Development, Production, Installation and Servicing.
ITER is an international project to design and build an experimental fusion reactor based on the "tokamak" concept. ITER is a large-scale scientific experiment intended to prove the viability of fusion as an energy source, and to collect the data necessary for the design and subsequent operation of the first electricity-producing fusion power plant. The incredibly complex ITER Tokamak will be nearly 30 meters tall, and weigh 23,000 tons. The ITER Tokamak is made up of an estimated one million parts. The acronym ITER also originally stood for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor—a name that is no longer used.